This is the Tunis Declaration of TICAD 8 adopted on 28 August 2022 in Tunis, Tunisia.
1.1 We, the Heads of State and Government, of African Union Member States and the delegations of Japan together with representatives of TICAD co-organizers, namely the United Nations, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the African Union Commission (AUC) met in Tunis, the Republic of Tunisia, on 27 – 28 August 2022, for the Eighth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD 8).
1.2 TICAD was launched in 1993, to provide a platform to mobilise support for Africa’s development. As TICAD marks its 30th anniversary in 2023, all parties involved in this platform commit to continue promoting Africa’s development by advocating for international cooperation under the guiding principles of African ownership, international partnership, inclusivity and openness. The role of TICAD will evolve as Africa strives to realize its development aspirations envisioned in Agenda 2063 and to build resilient economies that attract further private investment and as the international community increasingly focuses on Africa’s growth potential and needs.
1.3 The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented economic, political, environmental and social impacts globally. The pandemic highlighted the urgency and importance of integration, solidarity and “investment in people” which will enhance the significant potential of Africa as a driving force of global growth. As the global community witnessed the human security crisis caused by the pandemic, the concept of human security needs to be upheld more than ever. The pandemic has reminded us of the value of “people” on which the TICAD process attaches great importance.
1.4 The impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent socio-political and environmental shocks have highlighted the imperative to tackle these and other emerging challenges in the current socio-economic system, and to promote public-private partnership towards Africa’s development, which aims at achieving resilient and sustainable societies as well as sustainable peace and stability. To this end, we reiterated the importance of the Three Pillars in this Declaration.
1.5 To tackle the challenges and build on longtime efforts to achieve the AU Agenda 2063 and the SDGs, TICAD 8 recognized the fundamental value of consistent, and a more open, transparent and inclusive multilateralism. Consequently, we renew our commitment to work together to maintain international peace and stability based on the principle that the centrepiece of the international order is international law, including the UN Charter, and respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries. We also emphasize that all countries must seek peaceful resolution of disputes in accordance with international law. We take good note of the initiative of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific as announced by Japan at TICAD VI in Nairobi, Kenya.
- The Three Pillars
- Realizing structural transformation for sustainable economic growth and social development
2.1.1 Private sector investment is critical for Africa’s inclusive and sustainable economic growth and development and remains an essential partner in this transformative process in Africa. Following TICAD 7, private companies became official partners of TICAD with the Public Private Business Dialogue convened between Japan and Africa, which is a testament of the highest consideration attached to private sector development in Africa and Japan. We reaffirm the importance of partnership between Japan and Africa to encourage investment, to promote innovation from the private sector through encouraging collaboration between Japanese and African companies and technology transfer, and to strengthen industrial human resources development, in order to accelerate structural transformation for inclusive and sustainable growth in Africa and its efforts in achieving the Agenda 2063 and the SDGs, whilst overcoming challenges such as soaring food and energy prices.
2.1.2 We support initiatives to strengthen mutually beneficial public-private partnerships that facilitate economic diversification in Africa, such as the Japan Business Council for Africa and the Japan-Africa Infrastructure Development Association. These partnerships enhance the African business environment and support Africa’s priorities of economic transformation and diversification. We recognize the transformative roles of start-ups and private companies, including youth and women entrepreneurship, as emerging driving force to resolve social challenges in Africa. We recognize the importance of Japanese government’s efforts to further strengthen and broaden technical assistance and a wide variety of financial instruments to enhance these players in order to further enhance their transformative roles. In this regard, we note with appreciation the efforts towards creation of a new fund to promote investment in Africa and we also welcome the African Sovereign Investors Forum (ASIF), which aims at improving investment attractiveness on the continent and mobilization of capital for the benefit of structuring projects and we encourage the acceleration of impact investments to help solve various social challenges through innovative means and to create an environment conducive to an innovation-friendly eco-system. We also underscore the importance of investing in Africa’s digital transformation and ICT infrastructure including data infrastructure; putting in place digital industrial policies, and building appropriate skills to engage in the digital economy, with a view to accelerating innovation through partnering between Japanese businesses and African businesses. We urge enhanced support from the international community for digitization of African economies, as a means to unlocking the continent’s growth potential, and creating employment opportunities for its population. We will strive towards addressing the digital divide, ensuring access to affordable technology for citizens and to encourage investment.
2.1.3 Furthermore, we call for international cooperation to strengthen the existing mechanism for the recovery of stolen assets and to take the necessary measures to prevent such illegal practices, which are undermining African sustainable development efforts, in accordance with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda (AAAA) of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development.
2.1.4 We recognize that despite accounting for a meagre 3% of cumulative worldwide CO2 emissions historically, climate change and extreme weather conditions disproportionately affect Africa, with severe economic, social and environmental consequences for its people. We therefore reaffirm our commitment to addressing Africa’s climate vulnerabilities in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances. We call on the international community to honour their commitment to support an universal energy access and just transition, through implementing a transformative adaptation and mitigation agenda. We acknowledge that structural change towards low greenhouse emissions by making use of renewable energy sources and various clean energy technologies, including hydrogen and fuel ammonia, and energy efficiency technologies, is important for Africa, while meeting enormous demands of energy. We recognise the need for accelerating private investment in a just and fair transition towards alternative sources of energy against the backdrop of significant increase in oil and gas prices. We call for the fulfilment of financial commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process to support climate adaptation and mitigation actions in African countries. We commend efforts made by African countries to strengthen their green economies and reduce greenhouse gas emissions including through leveraging of private investments, technology transfers and innovation, Official Development Assistance and other official flows. We call for the promotion of Japan’s Green Growth Initiative with Africa (GGA) which aims to achieve structural change towards low greenhouse gas emission and green growth reflecting the different circumstance of each African country through public-private partnership in order to mobilize financial resources in climate adaptation and mitigation, including the use of Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM), and the collaboration with Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and multilateral climate funds such as African Development Bank (AfDB) and Green Climate Fund (GCF) to support adaptation and mitigation business, towards COP27 in Egypt in November 2022 and beyond. We also recognize the need to partner with African countries and build transparent markets for critical minerals to encourage investment in value addition and processing of natural resources. Furthermore, due to complication of global issues pertaining to food supply, we continue to supportthe strengthening of resilience in food security and nutrition in Africa – both of which are critical elements of the AU theme of the year 2022, through leveraging science, technology, innovation and sustainable financing. We support the maintenance of a fair and open global trading system for food commodities that also specifically addresses the impact on net food importing developing countries. We commit to support to increase agricultural production to replace imports in order to ensure food security in the face of rising prices of agricultural products, fertilizers, and other agricultural inputs and services, and declining agricultural productivity due to climate change. We contribute to the improvement of incomes in rural areas by investing in the development of infrastructure including transportation and cold chains for rural development to add value to agricultural products and reduce post-harvest loss and food waste. We support resilient and sustainable agriculture, food systems and value chains in Africa that are resilient to climate change and the disruption of global supply chains, including through the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) and the African Agriculture Adaptation Initiative (Triple A).
2.1.5 The COVID-19 pandemic and various challenges highlighted once again the importance of a free, open and fair international economic system that enables economic resilience in Africa. We stress the importance of sound development finance adhering to international rules and standards, such as macroeconomic stability, as the basis for sustainable economic development. We urge all major creditors including private lenders to adopt and follow fair and open lending practices. We call on the G20 and Paris Club creditors to step up their efforts to implement the Common Framework for Debt Treatment beyond the Debt Service Suspension Initiative in a timely, orderly and coordinated manner. In this regard, we call for the timely conclusion of the debt treatments for those countries that requested the debt treatment. We welcome efforts to create an environment in Africa in which countries in need of financial resources do not have to rely on unfair and opaque financing mechanisms. We recognize that domestic public resource mobilization is also critical to realizing sustainable development and achieving AU Agenda 2063 and UN SDGs. We welcome pledges amounting to USD 73 billion through the voluntary channelling of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) or equivalent contributions, and call for further pledges from all willing and able countries to meet the total global ambition of USD 100 billion voluntary contribution for countries most in need. We welcome initiation of the fifth phase of the Enhanced Private Sector Assistance for Africa (EPSA5) —a joint resource mobilization initiative between the African Development Bank and Japan, which amounts to up to USD 5 billion. We also reaffirm our commitment to uphold and strengthen the rules-based multilateral trading system, which is transparent, fair and inclusive, with the World Trade Organization (WTO) at its core. We further call for the implementation of the outcomes reached at the 12thWTO Ministerial Conference, including, those relating to the continuation to work on improving the application of special and differential treatment in the Committee on Trade and Development Special Session, fisheries subsidies, food security and the TRIPS decision on certain provisions in the TRIPS agreement for the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and preparedness for future pandemics.
2.1.6 We commit to promote Africa’s regional economic integration and foster an enabling international and business environment by strengthening and integrating intra-Africa trade and we welcome efforts to integrate African countries into global supply chains through a free, open and fair trade and investment environment. In this regard, we reaffirm the importance of strengthening the business environment for promotion of investments in Africa. We look forward to further improving the business environment, employment opportunities and corporate social responsibility. We also believe that quality infrastructure investment and African-led corridor projects under the Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), industrial development and relevant trade facilitation initiatives are fundamental for strengthening connectivity over borders, leading to sustainable economic transformation. In this regard, we welcome African-led initiatives on regional and continental economic integration including the provisional commencement of trading of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). We reiterate our support to the AfCFTA process to ensure that it achieves its goals of contributing to Africa’s inclusive and sustainable economic development through trade. We also recognize the importance of increased inflow of private finance by mitigating risks and strengthening cooperation between regional and international financial institutions to expand financial capacities. We recognise the importance of African initiatives, ownership and management of its natural resources to harness the full economic potential of the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and other water resources in accelerating economic growth in a cooperative manner through the blue economy including through the establishment of value chains in the fisheries sector and empowering people for sustainable development.
2.2 Realizing a resilient and sustainable society
2.2.1 Looking ahead to a post COVID-19 pandemic era, we reaffirm our commitment to collaborating with African countries in building a resilient and sustainable society in Africa to be characterized by human security and attainment of AU Agenda 2063 and the SDGs. To this end, we confirm the importance of intensifying our efforts in critical sectors such as health, education and environment sectors among others, based upon our joint achievements through the cooperation in the TICAD process.
2.2.2 The COVID-19 pandemic has reminded us all that global health is not only a basis of social and economic development but also a national security issue in this globalized world. Following the health systems and services gaps exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic including the “vaccine equity gap”, we fully commit to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) in African countries, through advocating for private sector investment as a way of promoting domestic financing for health, while addressing long-standing challenges such as communicable and non-communicable diseases, with special attention to neglected tropical diseases and lifestyle related diseases, maternal, neo-natal, child and adolescent health, including through the support to promote the Maternal and Child Health Handbook, as well as access to safe and drinking water, sanitation and nutrition, building on the outcome of Tokyo Nutrition for Growth Summit 2021. We commend the ongoing efforts to accelerate the effective and efficient use of digital technology in health sector. We highlight the need to address Africa’s limited access to vaccines and medical products, especially in crisis circumstances to develop technology driven pharmaceutical industry on the African continent. We express appreciation for Japan’s comprehensive efforts in ensuring equitable access to safe, effective and quality-assured COVID-19 vaccines in Africa, including through its vaccine and cold storage facility provision and up to USD 1.5 billion of financial contribution to the COVAX facility for global access for COVID-19 vaccine, and through financial facility to AfreximBank to advance the development of local production capabilities for vaccines and medical products with support from Japan International Cooperation Agency JICA and Japanese banks and to procure vaccines through the African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT) with support from Nippon Export and Investment Insurance (NEXI). African leaders also appreciated Japan’s new commitment of pledging up to USD 1.08 billion over three years for the Seventh Replenishment period of the Global Fund for achieving UHC through strengthening health systems and fighting against the three major infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, including for Africa. We also welcome the newly formulated Japan’s Global Health Strategy which aims to strengthen prevention, preparedness and response for public health crises, building on tangible progress made under Africa Health and Wellbeing Initiative (AfHWIN). We further welcome and advocate for the implementation of the New Public Health Order for Africa, which calls for a strengthened Africa Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention and National Public Health Institutions, and the operationalization of the African Medicines Agency (AMA), investment in public health workforce, expanded manufacturing of vaccines, as well as diagnostics and therapeutics, increase of domestic financing for health as well as respectful action-oriented partnerships.
2.2.3 We reiterate the importance of human capital for Africa’s development, especially by building local capacities in strategic sectors such as industry and businesses under the spirit of Africa’s ownership. Africa acknowledges and highly appreciates Japan’s valuable contribution in human resources development in Africa and welcomes its continuation. In this regard, we renew our efforts to address the issue of brain drain in Africa. We also underline the need of capacity development to broaden access to inclusive, quality and relevant education, training and skills development in Africa. We recall the importance of promoting science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education, the use of digital technology, knowledge exchanges in education, science and technology diplomacy, research and innovation as well as support for the socially vulnerable populations. We also recognize a greater synergy that facilitates cooperation between the civil society in Japan and Africa can play an essential role in building a resilient and sustainable society.
2.2.4 To achieve sustainable development in Africa, we emphasize the pressing need to address environmental issues, including climate change and related challenges such as natural disaster risks, land and forest degradation, waste management, marine pollution including plastic litter, droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, desertification, water stress and biodiversity loss. Therefore, we call for the scaled up international support for Africa’s environmental issues. In particular, we commit to continue to build the capacity of our communities in climate change mitigation and adaptation and welcome the implementation of the AU Climate Change and Resilient Development Strategy and Action Plan (2022 – 2032). We further aim to reduce additional pollution by marine plastic litter to zero. We emphasize the importance of strengthening work with international organizations on sustainable forest management and combating illegal logging in consideration of the African Strategy on Combatting Illegal Exploitation and Illicit Trade in Wild Flora and Fauna and the Africa Blue Economy Strategy. We commend African countries for their efforts in building green economies and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. African countries welcome Japan’s contribution in the areas of mitigation and adaptation. We also call for continuing efforts to tackle climate change, within the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, including developing green infrastructure, providing assistance in the fields of disaster management, agriculture, forestry, marine and terrestrial environment, as well as preserving of ecosystems.
2.3 Realizing sustainable Peace and Stability
2.3.1 Good governance, democracy and the rule of law are crucial for the development, peace and stability of Africa. In this regard, we will continue to support African-led efforts geared towards preserving democratic principles, including inclusive, credible and transparent elections as well as institution and capacity building and strengthening of governance. We acknowledge that sustained longer-term efforts are indispensable for the consolidation of democracy and underscore the importance of building social infrastructure and supporting livelihood improvement of youth and women. We commit to foster cooperation through support for adequate training for African-led peace support missions and capacity building in Africa, as well as support law-enforcement operations, and value the African Governance Architecture (AGA), the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA).We take note of the New Approach for Peace and Stability in Africa (NAPSA) as announced at TICAD 7 in 2019. We fully recognize the vital role of African-led Peace Support Missions in maintaining peace and stability in Africa and importance of strengthening the partnership between the AU and the United Nations Security Council in this aspect. We confirm our commitment to thoroughly discuss the issues related to various funding and assistance options.
2.3.2 We emphasize the importance of promoting regional and international efforts related to maritime security, including the fight against piracy, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and other maritime crimes, and maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law in particular the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). In this regard, we welcome the Agreement reached during the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference, held in Geneva, 12-17 June 2022 that prohibits subsidies that contribute to IUU fishing. We reaffirm our determination to work with African countries to combat IUU fishing, a multi-faceted problem which undermines not only maritime security, but also sustainable development and stability of local economies. The global priority also lies in enhancing governance, combatting transnational organized crime, illicit financial flows and corruption, promoting peace-building, countering illegal wildlife trade, terrorism and violent extremism, and addressing cybersecurity.
2.3.3 We renew our commitment to support Africa’s efforts in preventing conflicts and to reinforce peace by addressing their root causes and concurred to take concrete actions to achieve durable peace while respecting international human rights law and international humanitarian law. In this regard, the humanitarian-development-peace nexus is critical. We underline the importance of efforts at sub-regional, national, local and community levels to address security challenges. To address the root causes of conflicts, we emphasize the need to strengthen the self-reliance and resilience of communities and their collaboration with governments based on mutual trust. We value the African Union Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD) Centre in fulfilling its mandate to address the root causes of conflict and fragility in Africa. We underscore the need for protection and support to forcibly displaced people, including refugees, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), through finding durable solution and supporting local communities. We emphasize that women and the youth must be at the center of all our efforts to build peaceful, sustainable and resilient societies, and will continue to promote the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and Youth, Peace and Security (YPS) agendas. In this regard, we will join efforts to further promote the implementation of the African Union Agenda in Women, Peace and Security, Children and Armed Conflict and the Youth. We acknowledge that fragility linked to climate change is a threat to peace and stability in Africa and addressing environmental and climate-related challenges can contribute to sustaining peace and stability.
2.3.4 We express serious concern about the situation in Ukraine and its impact on African and global economies. In this respect, we emphasize the importance of the preservation of peace, security and stability, through dialogue and respect for the principles of international law. We underscore with deep concern the negative socio-economic impact of this crisis, which has created food insecurity in Africa in the challenging context of the post COVID-19 and reiterate the repeated calls for the resumption of the export of cereals, grains and agricultural products as well as fertilizers to global markets in order to relieve the African population. We call upon all international partners to support African countries to overcome the increasing food and energy prices. We welcome the agreement among Ukraine, Russia, the United Nations and Türkiye, signed on the 22 July 2022, on the export of grain and agricultural product via the Black Sea. We encourage all the parties to ensure the implementation of the agreement.
2.3.5 We stress the high priority we attach to multilateralism and international legitimacy. We reiterate that the reform of the Security Council should be addressed in a comprehensive, transparent and balanced manner, addressing all the five key issues including the question of the veto, and should garner the widest possible political acceptance by Member States through the intergovernmental negotiations that are fully owned and led by Member States, as stipulated in the UN General Assembly Decision 62/557. We acknowledge the need to redress the historical injustice against Africa with regard to its representation in the Security Council, and reaffirm support for full African representation in the Security Council, through not less than two Permanent seats with all the prerogatives and privileges of Permanent membership including the right of veto, and five Non-permanent seats, in line with the African Common Position as enshrined in Ezulwini Consensus and Sirte Declaration, and with this in mind, we are determined to cooperate to accelerate the reform of the Council. Japan and African states will continue to communicate and cooperate closely at the United Nations, in such areas as peacebuilding.
2.3.6 We reaffirm our commitment to realizing a world without nuclear weapons, recognizing the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of the nuclear weapons use, understanding of which underpins our pursuit of the total elimination of nuclear weapons. We are committed to maintain and strengthen the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime, and an essential foundation for the pursuit of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. We also reiterate the importance of prevention and eradication of illicit trade of small arms and light weapons.
3.0 Way Forward
3.1 We appreciate the steady implementation of the Yokohama Plan of Actions 2019 (YPA) and we are committed to continue updating in an inclusive manner YPA by reframing it to TICAD 8 Tunis Plan of Actions. We reaffirm that initiatives and actions under TICAD Plan of Actions will be aligned with African and international frameworks such as AU Agenda 2063 and the SDGs.
3.2 TICAD 9 will be held in Japan in 2025. A TICAD ministerial meeting will be held in 2024.
3.3 We express our deep gratitude to His Excellency Mr. Kais Saied, President of the Republic of Tunisia, for co-chairing and hosting TICAD 8 in Tunis. We further express our sincere appreciation to the Government and people of Tunisia for the warm welcome and hospitality extended to the participants of TICAD 8.